More on author: Mitchill. Paul's Rocks Ref. Reported from Mauritania Ref. Also found in Argentina Ref. Short description Morphology Morphometrics Dorsal spines total : 9; Dorsal soft rays total : ; Anal spines : 3; Anal soft rays : 19 -
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The blue runner Caranx crysos , also known as the bluestripe jack , Egyptian scad , hardtail jack or hardnose , is a common species of moderately large marine fish classified in the jack family , Carangidae. The blue runner is distributed across the Atlantic Ocean, ranging from Brazil to Canada in the western Atlantic and from Angola to Great Britain including the Mediterranean in the east Atlantic.
The blue runner is distinguished from similar species by several morphological features, including the extent of the upper jaw , gill raker count and lateral line scale counts. The species inhabits both inshore and offshore environments, predominantly over reefs , however it is known to congregate around large man made offshore structures such as oil platforms.
Juveniles tend to inhabit shallower reef and lagoon waters, before moving to deeper waters as adults. The blue runner is a schooling, predatory fish, predominantly taking fish in inshore environments, as well as various crustaceans and other invertebrates. Fish living offshore feed nearly exclusively on zooplankton.
Larvae and juveniles live pelagically , often under sargassum mats or jellyfish until they move inshore. The blue runner is of high importance to fisheries , with an annual catch of between and tonnes taken from the Americas in the last five years. The species is also a light tackle gamefish , taking baits lures and flies, but is often used as bait itself, being a mediocre table fish. There has been some suggestion that the eastern Pacific species Caranx caballus , the green jack , may be conspecific with C.
The blue runner is classified within the genus Caranx , one of a number of groups known as the jacks or trevallies. Caranx itself is part of the larger jack and horse mackerel family Carangidae , part of the order Carangiformes. The species was first scientifically described by the American ichthyologist Samuel L.
Mitchill in , based on a specimen taken from the waters of New York Bay , USA which was designated to be the holotype.
These names are considered invalid junior synonyms under ICZN rules. The species has many common names , with the most common being 'blue runner'.
Other less commonly used names include 'bluestripe jack', 'Egyptian scad', 'hardtail jack', 'hardnose', 'white back cavalli', 'yellow tail cavalli', as well as a variety of broad names such as 'mackerel', 'runner' and 'crevalle'. There have been suggestions that the blue runner may be conspecific with the eastern Pacific species Caranx caballus green jack , although no specific studies have been undertaken to examine this relationship.
The anal fin consists of 2 anteriorly detached spines followed by 1 spine and 19 to 21 soft rays. The straight section contains 0 to 7 scales followed by 46 to 56 very strong scutes , with bilateral keels present on the caudal peduncle. There are a total of 86 to 98 scales and scutes over the entire lateral line.
The upper jaw contains an irregular series of outer canines with an inner band of small, regularly spaced teeth, while the lower jaw contains a single band of small teeth.
There are 25 vertebrae present. The blue runner's colour varies from bluish green to olive green dorsally, becoming silvery grey to brassy below. Juveniles often have 7 dark vertical bands on their body. Fin colour also varies, with all fins ranging from to dusky or hyaline to olive green. The species also has a dusky spot which may not be distinct on the upper operculum. The blue runner is extensively distributed throughout the tropical and temperate waters of the Atlantic Ocean, ranging widely along both the eastern American coastline and the western African and European coastlines.
In the eastern Atlantic the southernmost record is from Angola , with the blue runner distributed extensively along the west African coast up to Morocco and into the Mediterranean Sea. Some authors have attributed this northward migration to rising sea surface temperatures , possibly the result of climate change.
The blue runner is primarily an inshore fish throughout most of its range, however it is known to live on reefs in water depths greater than m. Juvenile fish are also known to inhabit the shallow waters of inshore lagoons, taking refuge around mangroves  or in seagrass amongst coral reef patches. Blue runner are easily attracted to any large underwater or floating device, either natural or man made.
Several studies have shown the species congregates around floating buoy-like fish aggregating devices FADs , both in shallower waters, as well as in extremely deep m waters, indicating the species may move around pelagically. The blue runner normally moves either in small schools or as solitary individuals,  although large aggregations of up to 10, individuals are known in unusual circumstances. The blue runner is a fast-swimming predator which primarily takes small benthic fishes as prey in inshore waters.
A Puerto Rican study found the species supplements its fish dominated diet with crabs, shrimps , copepods and other small crustaceans. Studies around these platforms has found blue runner feed with equal intensity during both day and night, with larger prey such as fish taken preferentially at night, with smaller crustaceans taken during the day.
The blue runner reaches sexual maturity at slightly different lengths throughout its range, with all such studies occurring in the west Atlantic. Peak spawning season in the Gulf of Mexico occurs from June to August, with a secondary peak in spawning during October in northwest Florida. The blue runner's larval stage has been extensively described, with distinguishing features including a slightly shallower body than other larval Caranx , and a heavily pigmented head and body. The oldest known individual was 11 years old based on otolith rings.
The blue runner is a highly important species to commercial fisheries throughout parts of its range. Due to its abundance, it may be one of the primary species in a fishery.
The availability of fisheries statistics for the species is variable throughout its range, with the Americas having separate statistics kept for the species, while in Africa and Europe it is lumped in with other carangids in statistics. Artisanal fisheries in Santa Catarina Island have shown blue runner to be third most important and abundant species, making up 5.
Blue runner is also of high importance to recreational fisheries, with anglers often taking the species both for food and to use as bait. The blue runner has a reputation as an excellent gamefish on light tackle, taking both fish baits, as well a variety of lures including hard-bodied bibbed lures, spoons, metal jigs and soft plastic jigs.
It is considered a fairly low-quality table fish ,  and larger specimens are known to carry the ciguatera toxin in their flesh, with several cases reported from the Virgin Islands. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Species of fish. Conservation status. Mitchill , Nelson; T. Grande; M. Wilson Fishes of the World 5th ed. Van Winkle and Wiley. May version. Calypso Publications. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.
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