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Colombia has focused investment on reducing poverty and enhancing economic, social and cultural rights in order to achieve the MDGs. For more than 40 years Colombia has been torn by internal armed conflict, resulting in a serious humanitarian crisis with the forced internal displacements and the need to provide shelter.
It is also the second worst country in the region in terms of income inequality, with a Gini rating of 0. This situation has been exacerbated by reforms to the system for transferring resources from the central administration to the various departments,  as this has meant drastic reductions in the amounts spent on health, education and potable water.
In this loss was equivalent to 0. It has been calculated that in the period, between COP According to official statistics, As regards social policy, the State has confined its efforts to reducing extreme poverty and hunger and working towards the targets under the Millennium Development Goals MDGs.
Owing to the fact that State social policy is geared to minimum targets, the process of progressively establishing certain rights has stalled as resources go into programs that support only one sector of the population and ignore those equally affected by problems such as poverty and unemployment.
What is more, even as pursuit of the MDGs has reduced efforts to improve economic, social and cultural rights, progress towards the MDGs has been inadequate.
For example, Colombia is the only country in the region that is not providing universal basic education for children. The situation as regards maternal mortality is similar. Indicators for this variable are still very high — 80 deaths per , live births —practically the same as 25 years ago.
Briefly, the plan proposes to finance poverty reduction and pursuit of the MDGs through targeted assistance policies and economic growth in sectors that generate jobs. Another factor is that the program perpetuates a patriarchal model of the family in which the woman cares for the children while the man works in the productive system to acquire resources and services.
The first period of this Presidential administration coincided with a strengthening growth cycle in the world economy. However, economic growth did not translate into improved quality of life for the poorest sectors in society.
Expert opinion is that the main reason for this failure is that the Colombian economy is basically speculative. The Government has given priority to the purchase of public debt bonds issued by the Treasury of the Nation TES to the financial sector. There was another factor behind the economic growth of the period, namely increased public expenditure to maintain the war effort, that is to say the application of so-called military Keynesianism whereby the State increases defence spending to boost economic growth.
While this policy does have a positive impact at the macroeconomic level, it does not generate employment or narrow the poverty gap. Their basic stance is that structural unemployment is not the result of de-industrialization, nor is it just due to cycles in the international economy; it is a consequence of Colombia having labour legislation that grants excessive guarantees to workers in the formal economy, which acts as a disincentive for enterprises to generate new jobs with full benefits.
In this context, the Government initiated a labour reform program that included lengthening the working day, reducing extra payments for work on public holidays and limiting the indemnity payable for dismissal without just cause. However, in spite of these measures, the unemployment rate has been rising: from International aid in Colombia is guided by the Paris Declaration, which among other things seeks to channel most aid for democracy and development through national governments and standardize procedures for how these resources are managed.
The most significant instance in this area is the G, a group of 24 countries that have programs to support development, democracy and civil rights in a range of countries including Colombia. The Social Action body was set up by the Government to centralize the administration of international aid, particularly of resources from the United States and Europe, and invest these funds in accordance with the current development model, even though this gives rise to all the negative consequences analyzed in the paragraphs above.
As a result, initiatives by civil society organizations, which have a vision of development and democracy different from that of the Government, no longer receive finance from this source, thereby seriously reducing the implementation of alternative development models. To make matters worse, the resources allocated to independent development cooperation agencies in countries in the G have been reduced since these funds are increasingly transferred to Colombia through the Social Action channel.
Many of these independent aid providers have had to withdraw from Colombia or have merged with other agencies or formed consortiums because they are so starved of funds.
This has the result of limiting the number of initiatives that can be supported, continuing to marginalize a number of sectors of the population. While the goal of channelling development cooperation through national development plans and budgets, rather than according to donor priorities, is commendable, there remains a need to support the advocacy work of civil society organizations that is so essential to making these plans nationally owned, inclusive and effective.
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Translation of "CONPES" in Russian