At their office I could see first hand the study models for some of the projects the firm has been involved, such as a mockup for their P. These small pieces had a lot to tell, not only about the specific project they were part of, but also their iterations. The book presents in a clear way with very good examples the methods behind digital fabrication: sectioning, tessellating, folding, contouring, and forming. For most of us these words are pretty much obvious and we often use them as design principles of our projects.
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Architectural design—Data processing. Architecture— Data processing. Computer-aided design. I93 Digital fabrication, in particular, regularly pioneer techniques and experiment with has spurred a design revolution, yielding a wealth of fabrication processes on a small scale.
The means architectural invention and innovation. How designs by which these projects were realized are within the use digital fabrication and material techniques to reach of many practitioners and students. Here, calibrate between virtual model and physical artifact the architectural project is a form of applied design is the subject of this book. The projects center on a mode of architects encounter between drawing, the traditional inquiry whose method of making ultimately forms medium of design, and building, the final outcome the design aesthetic.
Many of the practitioners teach of their work. For this reason, some excellent student its own host of restraints and possibilities.
Digital projects have been included in the pages that follow. As with any design process, however, contouring, and forming. Each section introduces there are invariably gaps among the modes of the basics of the featured technique through a making.
And, as with all tools of production, the description of pioneering case studies, after which very techniques that open these investigations have there is a collection of projects demonstrating how their own sets of constraints and gear particular ways architects have manipulated the tectonic method for of working.
In the best cases, such as those shown in design. Naturally, the projects overstep the chapter this book, innovation is born out of this fissure and definitions: many combine two or three techniques. The distinctions nevertheless structure and Digital Fabrications: Architectural and Material contextualize the work, so that the projects gain Techniques documents architecturally innovative specificity in light of the others.
By way of several ground- method and final results, documenting breaking projects, it offers a brief and informative working drawings, templates, and material background to the rise of digital fabrication in prototypes.
Books on digital design tend to be architecture, providing insight into why it has sparked highly technical, focused on documenting a few the imagination of a new generation of designers. The bulk of the book, Missing from these efforts is a visually exciting however, is devoted to illustrating projects that collection of smaller built projects focused on reveal the design ingenuity that arises from digital design. CAD programs have made two- It is inconceivable today to imagine designing dimensional drawing efficient, easy to edit, and, with buildings without the use of computers.
They are a little practice, simple to do. Yet for many years, as used at every step of the architectural process, the process of making drawings steadily shifted from from conceptual design to construction. Three- being analog to digital, the design of buildings did dimensional modeling and visualization, generative not really reflect the change.
CAD replaced drawing form finding, scripted modulation systems, structural with a parallel rule and lead pointer, but buildings and thermal analyses, project management and looked pretty much the same. This is perhaps not coordination, and file-to-factory production are just so surprising—one form of two-dimensional some of the digital practices employed by architects representation simply replaced another. It took and building consultants. Digital fabrication is often three-dimensional-computer modeling and digital one of the final stages of this process, and it is very fabrication to energize design thinking and expand much what it sounds like: a way of making that uses the boundaries of architectural form and construction.
Falling In a relatively short period of time, a network under the umbrella of computer-aided design and of activities has grown up around digital fabrication. This inventiveness has design and engineering and of manufacturing to do in part with restructuring the very process industries—particularly the automotive and of construction. The work of Gehry Partners and aerospace industries—for more than a half century.
For them, digital designed and built using 3D-computer-modeling integration was largely necessitated by the complexity software. Scaled models are made quickly, using of the building geometries. Once in to develop and then test the constructability the computer model is refined and completed, the of a building system for the Disney Concert Hall.
Initially, physical models materials such as aluminum, steel, wood, and plastics. The design subsequently processes that are typically compartmentalized, moved back and forth between physical and digital often eliminating intermediate steps between design surface models—physical models for aesthetics, and final production.
The architects included here are controlled milling machines derived from digital committed to employing the fluid potentials of surface models. In other words, the digital model was technology to inform the design process and gear translated directly into physical production by using the evolution of their designs, while their digitally driven machines that essentially sculpted the experimentation is remarkable for being on a stone surface through the cutting away of material.
Several groundbreaking projects helped Technologies to further develop Digital Project, a instigate this avenue of design research and shape version of CATIA adapted and specialized for the a new generation of architects. Within a span of about five years beginning Digital Project integrates numerous aspects of the in the mids, a host of projects appeared that construction process, including building codes, and clearly demonstrated the aesthetic merits of using mechanical, structural, and cost-criteria aspects.
The company manipulations, all of which will be discussed at is revolutionary in that it expands the role of the greater length in the chapter introductions. In seeing architect to include oversight of the building and these projects, one cannot deny that, in addition to construction-management process, much as it was the professional, industrial, and economic benefits in the age of the master builder. While the ingenuity of the similar integrated project-delivery methods for large, following projects goes far beyond the outward complex projects.
The focus of this book, however, appearance, the strong visual aspect nevertheless is less on integration with the construction industry plays a significant role in sparking the imagination and more on another avenue of investigation taken by of young designers. These early projects are the architects relative to digital fabrication: design-build achievement most notably of architects with material experimentation at a one-to-one scale.
Recent Experimentation To move from design to construction, it is We have experienced a fertile generation of necessary to translate graphical data from two- architecture focused on the expanding possibilities dimensional drawings and three-dimensional models of material and formal production. Digital methods into digital data that a computer-numeric-controlled have fundamentally shifted the discipline of CNC machine can understand.
Some evocations of abstracted images at mural scale— aspects of this translation are relatively automatic and all achieved through the aggregation of simple and involve using machine-specific software; others building materials. Decisions The following chapters discuss architects who as to which machine and method to use must marry have honed digital-fabrication techniques on design intent with machine capability.
It has therefore specific projects. Each discussion is accompanied by become necessary for digitally savvy architects to a detailed breakdown of the fabrication technique, understand how these tools work, what materials they providing insight into the recent projects featured in are best suited for, and where in the tooling process each chapter.
These are projects that concentrate on the possibilities lie. The final outcomes hinge on as a means to produce material effect. They seek the ability to reconcile the developmental shifts in to elevate standard building materials perceptually material and working method. While the individual through nonstandard fabrication processes. Surfaces projects naturally take on different emphases, the form buildings, and they can do so through smooth, work consistently elucidates provocative liaisons undifferentiated expanses, or they can be constructed, between digital production and making.
Compelling textured, assembled, patterned, ornamented, or design projects in and of themselves, they are both otherwise articulated. Digital fabrication opens testaments to smaller-scale experimentation and the onto a sea of possibilities. Punching, laser cutting, testing grounds for buildings to come. Practically speaking, because buildings are made from a series of parts, their assembly relies on techniques of aggregating and manipulating two- dimensional materials.
Computer fabrication has opened a realm for architects to perceptually heighten and make visible the nature of this accretion through constructed repetition and difference.
The subtle variation of a system of elements, the transformation of recognizable materials, and the visceral response, no less, to viewing the result of intensive material accumulation—often understood to be the purview of the low arts or crafts—have been digitally redefined into a vocabulary by which architectural language is transformed.
The projects shown in this book expand on these digital production techniques and capitalize on material methods as a generator for design. The architects here are concerned both with tectonics of assembly and with synthetic surface and material effect. They are an indispensable communication likened to an airplane wing by the architect—is and design device.
They have also contributed to designed and built as a series of structural concrete a prominent digital fabrication method. With ribs, tied together laterally by crossbeams. A paper computer modeling, deriving sections is no longer model of the roof clearly shows the intentions for a necessarily two-dimensional drawing exercise. In the internal construction. The advantages of using fact, it is no longer an exercise in projection at all this type of hollow construction are clear: it is a but a process of taking cuts through a formed lightweight structure that provides accurate edge three-dimensional object.
As architects increasingly profiles for a nonuniform shape on which to align design with complex geometries, using sectioning and support surface material, in this case thin shells as a method of taking numerous cross sections of concrete. In his book Ronchamp, Le Corbusier through a form has proven time and again an enumerates the unique constructional makeup in effective and compelling technique.
Indeed he has become a poster sectioning uses a series of profiles, the edges of which child of sorts for protoblob architecture. In the follow lines of surface geometry. Architects have experimented with sectional construction.
Although the truly organic form of his assemblies as a way to produce both surface Endless House was never realized, he did complete and structure. The gallery digital techniques, sectioning has a long history in bespeaks his desire for a sentient architecture that the construction industry. Objects such as airplane bodies and against a curved backdrop. Study sketches of the boat hulls are first defined sectionally as a series of curved wall and ceiling reveal sectional ribs that structural ribs, then clad with a surface material.
Lofted surfaces can be What is similar about these projects is their unrolled into flat pieces or else geometrically employment of sectioning for constructional and redescribed in section as curves along the surface. Photo: L. Scaled model showing ribbed roof structure. Final installation showing lights behind Mylar panels. Rendering of sectional ribs. Lynn designed the installation however, the sectioning in both cases is a substrate to push his process toward full-scale construction.
Initially the form digitally generated sectional construction as part of was curvilinear, made of parallel sectioned ribs cut a highly influential design methodology. In his from a plastic sheet using two-dimensional computer book Animate Form, Lynn formulates an architectural plots as full-scale cutting templates.
Digital Fabrications: Architectural and Material Techniques / Lisa Iwamoto
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Architectural pioneers such as Frank Gehry and Greg Lynn introduced the world to the extreme forms made possible by digital fabrication. It is now possible to transfer designs made on a computer to computer-controlled machinery that creates actual building components. View PDF. Save to Library. Create Alert.
Digital Fabrications: Architectural and Material Techniques
Lisa Iwamoto, winner of numerous design awards, is associate professor of architecture at UC Berkeley and a principal of IwamotoScott Architecture. She is a leader in the field of digital fabrications, and her work has been published in numerous national and international journals such as Architectural Record, I. Lisa Iwamoto. Digital Fabrications, the second volume in our new Architecture Briefs series, celebrates the design ingenuity made possible by digital fabrication techniques. Author Lisa Iwamoto explores the methods architects use to calibrate digital designs with physical forms. The book is organized according to five types of digital fabrication techniques: tessellating, sectioning, folding, contouring, and forming.