Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time display editor. This manual describes how to edit with Emacs and some of the ways to customize it; it corresponds to GNU Emacs version To view this manual in other formats, click here. You can also purchase a printed copy from the FSF store. For information on extending Emacs, see Emacs Lisp.
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MH-E is easy to use. Now I'm fully hooked on both of them. The MH-E package is distributed with Emacs 1 , so you shouldn't have to do anything special to use it. Gnus is also required; version 5. This manual covers MH-E version 8. To help you decide which version you have, see Getting Started.
To learn about this notation, see Conventions. If more information is needed, you can go to the Unix manual pages of the individual MH commands.
When the name is not obvious, I'll guide you to a relevant MH manual page that describes the action more fully. This manual is available in both Info and online formats. The online version is available at SourceForge. I hope you enjoy this manual!
If you have any comments, or suggestions for this document, please let me know. In general, functions in this text refer to Emacs Lisp functions that one would call from within Emacs Lisp programs for example, mh-inc-folder. On the other hand, commands are those things that are run by the user, such as i or M-x mh-inc-folder. Programs outside of Emacs are specifically called MH commands, shell commands, or Unix commands. This is normally used to complete a command.
A prefix argument allows you to pass an argument to any Emacs function. To pass an argument, type C-u before the Emacs command or keystroke. Numeric arguments can be passed as well. For example, to insert five f's, use C-u 5 f. There is a default of four when using C-u , and you can use multiple prefix arguments to provide arguments of powers of four. To continue our example, you could insert four f's with C-u f , 16 f's with C-u C-u f , 64 f's with C-u C-u C-u f , and so on. Examples include M-5 to specify an argument of 5, or M-- which specifies a negative argument with no particular value.
In this mode, simply enter the numerical argument before entering the command. Emacs uses variables to hold values. Variables in MH-E that are normally modified by the user are called options and are modified through the customize functions such as M-x customize-option or M-x customize-group. See Options. You can specify various styles for displaying text using faces.
Use the command M-x customize-face to do this. Commands often offer hooks which enable you to extend or modify the way a command works.
MH-E uses normal hooks in nearly all cases, so you can assume that we are talking about normal hooks unless we explicitly mention that a hook is abnormal. We also follow the conventions described in that section: the name of the abnormal hooks end in -functions and all the rest of the MH-E hooks end in -hook. You can add hooks with either customize-option or add-hook. There are several other terms that are used in Emacs that you should know.
The point is where the cursor currently is. You can save your current place in the file by setting a mark. This operation is useful in several ways. The mark can be later used when defining a region , which is the text between the point and mark.
Many commands operate on regions, such as those for deleting text or filling paragraphs. The minibuffer is the bottom line of the Emacs window, where all prompting and multiple-character input is directed. You can use completion to enter values such as folders. The minibuffer is also where you enter Emacs function names after typing M-x.
For example, in the preface, I mentioned that you could obtain help with C-h t help-with-tutorial. What this means is that you can get a tutorial by typing either C-h t or M-x help-with-tutorial. This notation is used by many shells including bash , tcsh , and csh.
In case of trouble: Emacs can be interrupted at any time with C-g. For example, if you've started a command that requests that you enter something in the minibuffer, but then you change your mind, type C-g and you'll be back where you started.
If you want to exit Emacs entirely, use C-x C-c. See History. If your version is much older than this, please consider upgrading. You can have your system administrator upgrade the system-wide version, or you can install your own personal version. It's really quite easy. If you don't have MH on your system already, you must install a variant of MH.
If you've never run MH before, you need to run install-mh from the shell before you continue. This sets up your personal MH environment 4. See the MH book to learn more about MH. This file contains a number of MH profile components. The option mh-variant specifies the variant used by MH-E see Options.
If MH-E can't find MH at all, you may have to customize mh-path and add the directory in which the command mhparam is located.
When mh-variant is changed, MH-E resets mh-progs , mh-lib , mh-lib-progs , mh-flists-present-flag , and mh-variant-in-use accordingly. In addition to setting variables that point to MH itself, MH-E also sets a handful of variables that point to where you keep your mail. The hook mh-find-path-hook is run after these variables have been set. This hook can be used the change the value of these variables if you need to run with different values between MH and MH-E.
When you're done, you'll be able to send, read, and file mail, which is all that a lot of people ever do. But if you're the curious or adventurous type, read the rest of the manual to be able to use all the features of MH-E. I suggest you read this chapter first to get the big picture, and then you can read the manual as you wish.
Enter M-x mh-smail to invoke the MH-E program to send messages. Your message appears in an Emacs buffer whose mode 6 is MH-Letter. Enter Test or anything else that comes to mind. Enter some text, using normal Emacs commands. It is essential that these dashes or a blank line are present or the body of your message will be considered to be part of the header.
There are several commands specific to MH-Letter mode 8 , but at this time we'll only use C-c C-c to send your message. Type C-c C-c now. That's all there is to it! If you were to run this tour again, you would use F r to pull all your messages into MH-E.
You should see the scan line for your message, and perhaps others. Ensure that the cursor is still on the same line as your test message and type r. Here MH-E is asking whether you'd like to reply to the original sender only, to the sender and primary recipients, or to the sender and all recipients.
When you're finished editing your message, send it with C-c C-c as before. You'll often want to save messages that were sent to you in an organized fashion.
This is done with folders. You can use folders to keep messages from your friends, or messages related to a particular topic. With your cursor in the MH-Folder buffer and positioned on the message you sent to yourself, type o to output refile in MH parlance that message to a folder.
We'll talk about how the refile is actually carried out in a moment. Your previous reply is now waiting in the system mailbox. Do this now. Let's delete this message by typing d. This means that the message is marked for deletion but is not yet deleted. To perform the deletion and the refile we did previously , use the x command. If you want to send another message you can use m instead of M-x mh-smail.
So go ahead, send some mail to your friends! You can get a quick reminder about these commands by typing? This lists several prefix characters.
To list the commands available via the prefix characters, type the prefix character followed by a? More complete help is available with the C-h m describe-mode command.
Use C-x C-c to exit emacs. If you don't want to leave Emacs, you can type q to bury hide the MH-E folder or delete it entirely with C-x k.
You can then later recall it with C-x b or M-x mh-rmail.
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If you found this page useful please leave a note. My Emacs Cheat Sheet. My init. For Mac: Install Carbon Emacs I hear that this is more standards compliant, this is what I am using and seems to work fine. Most books, posts seem to refer to emacs rather than Xemacs so I just went with the flow.
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