Plan operativo 1. Apoyo a las competencias interculturales. El desarrollo de competencias interculturales constituye, entonces, un proceso de aprendizaje que requiere planteamientos claros respecto a sus fundamentos conceptuales y las facultades del entendimiento humano que se ven comprometidas en ambientes de trabajo educativo interculturales. La historia de la humanidad es el relato de esos pasajes.
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Volume index - Journal index - Article index - Map Back. This article examines the processes through which the massive press generates and represents the cultural discourses of two of the most polemic migrant groups coexisting nowadays in Chile: Peruvians and Bolivians.
The representation that the communication media carries out regarding the studied cultures strongly influences the imaginaries of the Chilean audiences. That calls for special concern so as to propose the necessary spaces for intercultural exchange as much in the media as in the social institutions. These spaces will be the ones in which communication studies and intercultural journalism can unite, in order to offer meeting and communication alternatives between culturally different groups.
Conflict situations and cultural clashes caused by migratory phenomena, social discrimination or border problems, for instance, appear in the media on a daily basis and are the target of the spectacularization they make of reality. This reality is revealed from a defined and established identity, in contrast to an otherness, which appears to be different, exotic, and supposedly weak.
This is especially important if we are talking about the reinforcement and installation of discourses regarding minority groups and cultures, as in the case of Peruvian and Bolivian migrants in Chile and their exposure to the formal and traditional sensationalist press in Chile. Its general aim is to understand the processes of the construction of news and the representation they do regarding the discourses on the Mapuche, Peruvian and Bolivian peoples in the nationwide circulation daily press, taking into consideration the intercultural studies developed in the field of communication and their applications to journalism.
From a historic standpoint, these classifications can be found in the geographic distributions of what was known as the War of the Pacific, a battle that culminated in both annexation of southern areas of Peru to Chile and in the impossibility of Bolivians to access the sea.
The specific analysis of news related to Peruvians and Bolivians in the Chilean press tries to establish and consolidate the representation models that take a distance from intercultural interaction. The media are backed by the imaginary which in turn becomes an official voice that focuses on the interests of its respective nations acting according to that truth to protect a supposed common well-being. The problem is that these representations can easily mutate into stereotypes and prejudices against others.
In Chile, there is a powerful stereotype marking the discriminatory treatment of Peruvians and Bolivians in the studied press regarding the increasing migratory phenomena from the countries in the Altiplano due to the latest global economic crisis. According to Flusser , the first meeting point among different cultures is intrinsic to human beings, as the current social science theories do not conceive of societies engrossed in and of themselves or in isolation.
The latter together with the idea that globalization has made cultural exchange easier, as posed by Laplantine and Nouss , exist in a complicated context of new ethnic and national groupings, where communities open themselves to the problem of identity. Based, over all, on the heterogeneous character of some cultures, Grimson holds that the definition of communication allows for validation of a proposal of inter-cultural encounter, where interactions prevail against a homogenizing and equalling generalization.
Therefore, at the intersection of communication and culture it is important to resort to the notion of interaction spaces, highlighting what is intercultural as a viable demonstration of nonsymbolic exchanges as well as physical and material interaction.
Consequently, it is appropriate to criticise the misunderstanding of concepts derived from the encounter between culture and identity, since —if we consider a community as a human group with its own homogeneous culture and identity— there would not be space for interaction among cultures through communicative phenomena. This would mean that national societies would end up homogenizing themselves; aboriginal peoples, becoming westernized; and migrants, integrating themselves. In other words, the Black migrant should become as White as the host receiving that coloured visitor.
Nevertheless, it is easy to deduce that this does not happen, as culture is in constant turmoil, interrelation and exchange. Rodrigo Alsina has a unique view of identity; he understands the concept as a cultural construction generated by social relations and interactions. This implies that identity is not inherent to man, but rather that it is built by comparison and differentiation from others.
This author presents two planes of identity: paradigmatic and pragmatic. Paradigmatic identity implies that people have a series of historically established and socially connoted models which are constantly renewed. The pragmatic plane of identity means that construction originates through interaction with others, acquiring its form from inter-subjective relations. The media build specific tools and instruments to say more in the smallest space possible. In order to understand the way individuals build their realities, it is pertinent to begin with what Potter poses when saying that it is natural to create factual confirmations not just by chance, but because real life situations, and even fiction, are better perceived when they are believable and coherent.
In social sciences, even in the sociology of scientific knowledge, the term constructionism is used with different and sometimes contradictory nuances. In the case of Berger and Luckmann, constructionism is reflected in the way experience adopts the shape of entities and solid and lasting structures in a social context.
It is a reality within reach of individuals, which allows itself to be manipulated and activities to be performed in it. It is important to analyse this point as these authors propose that the interest an individual has in a particular subject is determined by his or her physical closeness to it. This order makes reality seem objective, mainly because of the language used which, on the one hand, names the objects, situations and phenomena to regulate all that is meaningful to the individuals and, on the other, allows for the formation of contact networks in which everybody moves.
The reality of daily life responds to an organisation that is based on the chronotope Bajtin, , That is, when we open the newspaper, we enter into a different world and when we close it, we go back to the reality of daily life. Berger and Luckmann explain this phenomenon through theatre. Thus, it can be said that the media are endemic producers of limited areas of meaning, known for drawing attention away from a focus on daily life, which causes a break in the tension of consciousness.
Having said that, the news related to the Peruvian and Bolivian conflicts in the analysed newspapers generally place these conflicts in geographic situations far from most of the Chilean people. Further, in certain cities and places in Chile there are no Peruvian or Bolivian people, and thus there is no cultural exchange of this kind at all.
Finally, the political centralization in Chile turns Santiago into the news headquarters, even when the news develop in other regions or abroad, since the official voices —loyal and constant friends of news treatment in the media— are in the capital of Chile. In general terms, the news, commercial and political centralization in Chile causes the news regarding Peruvians and Bolivians to be detached from the direct perception of many people who read the studied newspapers.
They in turn make their interpretations and assimilations about their ever-changing realities. What is interesting here is that, although social constructions about reality are subjective, they can be activated by the media which, beyond their implicit intention of creating social imaginaries, become the victims of centralization.
This situation reinforces even more strongly the direct influence on the individuals who access them. Rodrigo Alsina , who understands the concept of reality as an inter-subjective social process of discourse analysis, identifies two contrasting models to study the media. Firstly, the media can be analysed according to their tendency to build an apparent or illusory reality where, as said by some theoreticians, the media manipulate and distort an objective reality or, as said by others, the media impose a social reality.
The second model proposes a hyper-realization of social reality following the reference of the sociology applied to semiotics, sociosemiotics and ethnomedology, where reality is created and spread by the media.
The author concludes that the process of construction of reality depends completely on the productive practice of a journalism that is legitimised to build these social realities. This is thanks to the process of institutionalization of the practices and roles in an inter-subjective game. According to Berger and Luckmann , by participating in this game individuals recognise their daily lives. As a result, it is important to clarify that the history of these newspapers shows that they obey a duopoly of information, since only two big journalistic consortia share the whole population that consumes written news in Chile.
Additionally, they are known for the centralization of their information, prioritising the events that occur in Santiago and leaving the rest of the region practically uncovered.
Apart from that, both newspapers are influenced by economic groups, a situation which has a clear impact on their political tendencies, presenting rigid news guidelines in agreement with the interests of editorial lines committed to the neoliberal right wing. Based on this, it can be shown that the media create a news system of tendencies. Therefore, the social constructions related to Bolivians and Peruvians, in this particular case, are submitted to a filter of private intentions, as will be seen in the methodological proposal.
Teun van Dijk ; ; ; , one of the main exponents of Critical Discourse Analysis CDA , states that the media are the most important tools of expression used by the groups that control the greatest proportions of powers in Western society. For that reason, the discourses of the media, especially of the news, have discourse elements that strengthen and reproduce the supremacy of the elites in front of the less favoured social groups.
That is, the media are the main producers of discourses about social inequality. Consequently, van Dijk has developed a line of work through CDA to analyse the way the press presents ethnic minorities and immigrants, particularly in and from Holland and Spain. Regarding the above, and since this research study attempts to understand the way the media affect society by building social imaginaries that reinforce intercultural difference related to Peruvians and Bolivians, it is interesting to work according to the guidelines —although with some adaptations to the local reality— proposed by van Dijk about CDA and their consequences concerning the aims of the present study.
The news was studied from general to specific and from global to local issues, regarding formal and meaningful aspects, and were divided into four planes, presented on two planes table 1 :.
This plane refers to the topics treated by the journalistic-informative discourse being analysed, indicating the interactions, social structure and orientations of the way the piece of news is issued. In practice, these global meanings cannot generally be easily recognised; they must be inferred from discourse itself or, as a last resort, they must be assigned to it.
This provides a first approximation to the analysed piece of news and allows for the control of other general aspects. In the field of journalism, this abstraction plane consists of a set of conventional textual categories such as the cover, callings, the text of the piece of news, opinions, and comments.
Journalists give this plane, the heading, the relevance of the text, i. This plane refers to a study of the local meanings, for example and according to the first interests of this study, the literal meaning of words. Local meanings, unlike global meanings, are the result of the mental relationships developed by the people who issue the piece of news.
These will depend on specific mental models and, therefore, will influence the resulting opinions, attitudes and social constructions of the people who receive this information. Local meanings can be divided into two categories: implicit and explicit in nature.
The text does not express them explicitly. In this case in particular, it is interesting to scan the lexical strategies used by journalists in the information given in the press or the news about the topics uncovered in the previous plane. The objective, in principle, is to observe the way formal ideological apparatuses of discourse that can issue crucial information operate, which build biased models depending on the dominating discourses and their sources, based on what Potter defends as economy of truth.
They are mental representations in the long-term memory, where knowledge and opinions about experience are stored. It refers to their importance in relation to the local and global model contexts. In this publication we will present only two cases as examples of the methodological application of the matrix of CDA already presented.
The selected pieces of news and their respective analyses are the following. The most relevant conflicts between Bolivians and Chileans have their origin in the War of the Pacific, where Bolivia lost its sea territories to Chile.
Although they have tried to recover them, they have not been successful. For that reason, the sea is an element of disagreement between the two countries. These articles were primarily located in the sports and crime sections. In the case of soccer, the field is turned into a battle field where different intercultural conflicts are brought up.
For example, there is a constant association between Peruvians and Chileans regarding culinary conflicts related to the claim of origin and the countries soccer capacities. This can be interpreted as the need to question the identity of the opponent or, at least, as the need to threaten to do so during the same sports event. The crime section presents a different scenario. The difference lies in that the intercultural police-related events can promote State policies against intercultural interaction.
These policies could end up in stronger control of Peruvian and Bolivian immigrants in order to avoid drug trafficking and illegal border crossing.
The problem is that laws, the same as the way the studied news constructions work, tend to generalise, which, in practice, creates and reinforces stereotypes: burrero Peruvians, indigenous Bolis, or vice versa.
Chilean Ministry of Education. Aguaded, J. Panoramas y perspectivas. Murcia: KR. Berger, P. Buenos Aires: Amorrortu. Browne, R. Campoy, T. Comunicar, 20; Sphera Publica, 4;
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ISBN 13: 9789580462415
Interculturalidad Y Comunicacion
Intercultural journalism: Peruvian and Bolivian representation in the Chilean daily press news
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