He said that the country was in dire need of new water reservoirs and these should have been constructed earlier. However, it was unfortunate that attempts were made to make several dam projects, including Kalabagh, controversial. Mr Vawda said that it was the responsibility of the local bodies and the provincial government to take precautionary measures to prevent flash floods in Karachi that had taken several precious lives. He said that the federal government was extending all possible technical and logistic assistance to mitigate sufferings of flood-affected people in the city. The minister said that the federal government had provided funds to Sindh but the provincial government seemed least interested to spend money for welfare of the common man. Such matters, he said, could be addressed through collaborative efforts of the federal and provincial governments but it was not affordable for the federal government to keep providing funds while the relevant provincial governments did nothing on the premise of 18th Amendment.
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However, critics are concerned that the dam will affect water access downstream. Controlling floodwaters has also become a priority and a reason in favour of the Kabalagh dam, given that floods during monsoonal rains are becoming increasingly more intense and have devastated large crop areas.
While the Kabalagh dam is defended as a necessary means of supplying water to agriculturalists, the construction of the dam would inundate large stretches of land and displace about , people.
The dam has come to symbolize the uneven distribution of water resources between regions, particularly between the Sindh and Punjab provinces as well as between rich and poor citizens. As a result, large scale civilian protests and political fractures between regional governments surfaced. Plans to build the Kalabagh dam on the Indus River have been the source of tensions between regional provinces in Pakistan for more than thirty years. Furthermore, construction of water infrastructure in Punjab has been a source of recurring protests in Sindh e.
In absence of detailed benefit sharing plans between regional states, politicians fear that proper compensation will not be paid Alam, ; Mustafa,et al. Following mass protests and strong opposition from Sindh, the project was suspended in However, planning re-opened in and the project currently awaits assessment from the Ministry of Water Resources Kiani, Concerns over the potential negative impacts of the dam have led to renewed protests in Sindh Dawn, The dam has been defended as a necessary means of supplying water for agriculture in the context of Pakistan's shrinking reserves Rizvi, ; Tribune News Desk, In addition, the Kalabagh dam, and more broadly hydropower, is seen by proponents as a climate-friendly method to provide Pakistan with renewable energy.
Disputes surrounding the dam Being located downstream, Sindh claims that the Kalabagh Dam would strip them of their rights to water and decimate downstream water access and quality for farmers and urban centres. On the upstream side, objections from KP stem from the fear of losing rich farmlands to submergence and possible saltwater intrusion into groundwater Mustafa et al. Even within Punjab, construction is also opposed due to its likely impact on communities on the planned construction site.
Punjabi citizens of the Mianwali district near the planned dam argue that the benefits of the dam will be unevenly distributed Niazi, Taking climate change into consideration The dam has been presented more recently as a strategy to adapt to climate change while increasing economic growth and meeting energy demand through hydropower generation. However, the potential benefits of the dam could be undermined by the effects of climate change on the Indus basin which include, among others, the retreat of the Himalayan Glaciers that is expected to reduce long-term water availability Jayaram, , and flood risks brought about by increasingly erratic rainfall patterns during the monsoon seasons Stolbova et al.
Consequently, these impacts could multiply the effects of climate change on various regions, which add to the likelihood of conflict.
For example, irregular monsoons are likely to aggravate tensions around issues of water distribution, the timing of flow management and reduction in water availability along the Indus basin Diamond, Authorities involved in the conflict resolution Water conflicts in the Indus basin, particularly between the provinces of Sindh and Punjab, are a recurring phenomenon. To mitigate conflict surrounding the distribution of water from the Indus basin, the Indus River System Authority IRSA was established in to judge and regulate the distribution of water resources between provincial states.
The IRSA investigated provincial concerns over the Kalabagh dam in and asserted its feasibility. The CCI ruled in favour of the federal government's plans for the dam.
The topic was then referred to parliament. Finally, as a result of heated politicisation, the Federal Minister for Water and Power postponed construction until Eurasia Review, The Lahore High Court declared the government legally obliged to build the dam in compliance with the ruling of the CCI in and plans were subsequently re-released. After protests in Sindh, the project was dropped but reopened again four years later in Weaknesses of resolution efforts The idea of the Kalabagh dam as a project to address water scarcity i.
Sindhi politicians have argued that the central government did not take the water needs of Sindh into account when the Indus Waters Treaty IWT was signed in see Conflict in the Indus River basin , or in subsequent water infrastructure projects. Their claim is that it left the downstream region in a state of structural water scarcity rather than the whole nation facing absolute water scarcity.
As the IWT may need to be renegotiated, this could provide an opportunity to better align subnational concerns. However, if diplomacy between India and Pakistan breaks down, it is likely that Sindh will become more vulnerable to the upstream developments of both Punjab and India see Conflict in the Indus River basin. All countries will need to adapt to some of the environmental, social and economic impacts of climate change that are already unavoidable.
Food security, livelihoods, water resource availability and public health are some affected areas. People living in poverty are more vulnerable, having a lower capacity to adapt. Thus, it is essential to promote resilience building.
The adaptation and resilience aspects need to be mainstreamed into planning by policy makers and the private sector as well as integrated into development strategies. Nature protection is most sustainable if it essentially contributes to the long-term stability of human needs. Today many regions around the world are confronted with increasing destruction of the natural foundations of life.
The consequences of wide-ranging resource destruction are no longer regionally limited, but rather represent a global threat. Those affected are mainly rural populations, who find the sources of their income and the foundations of their way of life swept away.
The depletion and destruction of natural resources goes hand in hand with decreasing agricultural yields and increasing poverty, which in turn forces the affected populations to deplete the remaining resources. Read more. On the one hand, conflicts are caused by structural factors, such as economic and social inequality or environmental destruction.
On the other hand, conflicts are fuelled by a lack of democratic structures, deficient mechanisms of non-violent conflict settlement, inadequate rule of law, the destruction of social and cultural identity and the disregard of human rights.
Against this backdrop, development policies have been dedicated to a broad concept of security, which comprises political, economic, ecological and social stability. As a consequence, development cooperation agencies and actors have developed a broad spectrum of approaches for conflict prevention and transformation as well as for sustainable use of natural resources. Civil society is the first victim of environmental pollution, under-development and conflicts.
Economically disadvantaged and politically marginalized population groups are particularly affected by violent conflicts as well as increasing resource degradation. Simultaneously, civil society is a fundamental pillar for implementing sustainable development. It contributes in many ways to strengthening conflict prevention and plays a significant role in the peaceful and democratic development of states.
It must be supported to strengthen civil rights, adherence to human rights in general and democratic participation. Climate change resulting from the emission of greenhouse gases represents one of the vital challenges for international environmental policy.
Flooding, droughts, shifting of climate zones and increasingly frequent and intense extreme weather events will have serious economic and social consequences for entire regions. The climate problem is also directly linked to the question of future energy generation. To address the challenges posed by climate change, a new profile of climate diplomacy is evolving.
This utilises a full range of policies, including development cooperation, conflict prevention efforts, and humanitarian assistance, in addition to more traditional measures of climate change adaptation and mitigation. Moving from a risk analysis of climate-related threats to well-timed preventive action requires a greater commitment to integrating climate change concerns into development, foreign, and security policies.
Examples include strengthening diplomatic networks, building new alliances with partners, and raising awareness — not only of potentially negative climate change impacts, but also of opportunities to embark on a sustainable transformation of our societies.
Climate action entails an array of economic, social, political and environmental co-benefits. It provides an opportunity for economic growth and new jobs. Many investments can take into account climate considerations without becoming more costly.
Further important co-benefits include: improved energy security, less local air and water pollution, health benefits as well as ecosystem and biodiversity protection. In order to overcome the structural causes of violent conflicts and thus bring about an improvement in the framework conditions for peaceful and fair development, it is essential to have long term and broadly planned peace development and peace advancement.
Various governmental and non-governmental, national and international actors and groups are involved in these processes. Climate change and development are inextricably linked.
Climate change endangers the development agenda and has the potential to reverse development goals. Furthermore, successful mitigation of climate change heavily depends on development choices around the world.
Therefore, development strategies need to be climate-compatible to provide long-term success, and there are viable policy options that support this compatibility. Many mitigation and adaptation activities can present development opportunities to developing countries and avoid the lock-in to environmentally damaging technologies. The reasons for the development and escalation of conflicts and the incidence of risks are multifaceted and complex.
Simultaneously, the assessment of the specific causes in the form of risk and conflict analyses can contribute to a better understanding of these processes and make it possible to provide warning of negative developments, or ideally help prevent them.
In the context of natural resource use, risks and conflicts have gained increasing attention in the past years. The debate on possible future water wars is merely one example. The well-being of individuals, communities and nations depends on the availability of energy resources. The gap between energy supply and demand appears to be growing, making the world vulnerable to serious economic shocks. At the same time, the burning of fossil fuels causing climate change is one of the vital challenges of international environmental policy.
So far, only rudimentary approaches exist for shaping climate and energy security in a sustainable way. The components of a strategy that can contribute to reducing vulnerabilities related to climate change and energy policy include a greater role for renewable energies, the improvement of energy efficiency and a stronger decentralisation of energy supply.
The economic, social and environmental consequences of climate change aggravate the breakdown of eco-system-dependent livelihoods and are likely to become dominant drivers of long-term migration.
Natural disasters already cause massive shorter-term displacement and the number of temporarily displaced people is likely to further increase with climate change. For vulnerable populations in vulnerable regions, such as the Sahel zone or the Ganges delta, migration often becomes the sole survival strategy. In order to address climate-related displacement and migration successfully, knowledge of effective adaptation and an improved understanding of how environmental change affects human mobility is essential.
Climate finance, from all sources, plays a key role in supporting and enabling adaptation and mitigation action as well as climate and energy innovation.
Increasing climate finance from all relevant public and private sources is crucial. Furthermore, much needs to be done to redirect finance flows to sustainable paths, e. The conditions for green investment in developing countries should also be improved. Forests are disappearing at an alarming rate. Competition for forest resources triggers, exacerbates, or finances numerous crises and conflicts in tropical developing countries.
Illegal logging and timber trade foster instability and sometimes violent conflict by strengthening illegal and armed groups, increasing corruption and exacerbating use and claim conflicts among local communities, the state and the business sector. Forests are a vital resource to poor people but they can also become areas of conflict.
Sustainable management of forest resources is therefore key to preventing violent conflict over and within forests. Gender plays an important role as a category of conflict for many reasons. The interlinkages between gender, environment and conflicts are complex and much research is still needed. Existing insights suggest that conflicts may worsen gender inequalities that existed before the outbreak of violence.
The unequal distribution of land property rights in many parts of the world serves as an example. Moreover, women and children are among those most affected by both violent conflict and natural disasters.
If constructed, the dam could generate 3, MW of electricity. It is also suggested and promoted as a potential solution to the chronic flooding problem and the related water crises in the country. Over the decades, the understanding of the environmental impacts of mega dam projects have grown, and Pakistan Economy Watch has demanded a national debate on the KBD issue. After the construction of Tarbela Dam , Kalabagh became the highest priority dam project. Pakistan first approached the Soviet Union for financing assistance, but due to strained relations with Afghanistan a Soviet ally , this request was denied. The government then approached the World Bank, which agreed to finance the project. At this point in Pakistan's history, previous dam projects such as Mangla under Ayub Khan and Tarbela under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto never faced any opposition.