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The work describes the process by which Hitler became antisemitic and outlines his political ideology and future plans for Germany. Volume 1 of Mein Kampf was published in and Volume 2 in Hitler began Mein Kampf while imprisoned for what he considered to be "political crimes" following his failed Putsch in Munich in November Although he received many visitors initially, he soon devoted himself entirely to the book. As he continued, he realized that it would have to be a two-volume work, with the first volume scheduled for release in early The governor of Landsberg noted at the time that "he [Hitler] hopes the book will run into many editions, thus enabling him to fulfill his financial obligations and to defray the expenses incurred at the time of his trial.
After Hitler's death, copyright of Mein Kampf passed to the state government of Bavaria , which refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany.
In , following the expiration of the copyright held by the Bavarian state government, Mein Kampf was republished in Germany for the first time since , which prompted public debate and divided reactions from Jewish groups.
In Mein Kampf , Hitler used the main thesis of "the Jewish peril", which posits a Jewish conspiracy to gain world leadership. He speaks of not having met a Jew until he arrived in Vienna, and that at first his attitude was liberal and tolerant.
When he first encountered the antisemitic press, he says, he dismissed it as unworthy of serious consideration. Later he accepted the same antisemitic views, which became crucial to his program of national reconstruction of Germany. Mein Kampf has also been studied as a work on political theory. For example, Hitler announces his hatred of what he believed to be the world's two evils: Communism and Judaism. In the book Hitler blamed Germany's chief woes on the parliament of the Weimar Republic , the Jews, and Social Democrats , as well as Marxists , though he believed that Marxists, Social Democrats, and the parliament were all working for Jewish interests.
While historians dispute the exact date Hitler decided to exterminate the Jewish people, few place the decision before the mids. Hitler also wrote that The Protocols of the Elders of Zion , which unmasked the nature and agenda of the Jewish people with their ultimate goals, is an authentic document, which later became a part of the Nazi propaganda effort to justify persecution and annihilation of the Jews.
The historian Ian Kershaw points out that several passages in Mein Kampf are undeniably of a genocidal nature. The racial laws to which Hitler referred resonate directly with his ideas in Mein Kampf.
In the first edition, Hitler stated that the destruction of the weak and sick is far more humane than their protection. Apart from this allusion to humane treatment, Hitler saw a purpose in destroying "the weak" in order to provide the proper space and purity for the "strong". In the chapter "Eastern Orientation or Eastern Policy", Hitler argued that the Germans needed Lebensraum in the East, a "historic destiny" that would properly nurture the German people.
And so we National Socialists consciously draw a line beneath the foreign policy tendency of our pre-War period. We take up where we broke off six hundred years ago. We stop the endless German movement to the south and west, and turn our gaze toward the land in the east. At long last we break off the colonial and commercial policy of the pre-War period and shift to the soil policy of the future. If we speak of soil in Europe today, we can primarily have in mind only Russia and her vassal border states.
Although Hitler originally wrote Mein Kampf mostly for the followers of National Socialism, it grew in popularity after he rose to power. Hitler began to distance himself from the book after becoming chancellor of Germany in It was given free to every newlywed couple and every soldier fighting at the front.
Mein Kampf , in essence, lays out the ideological program Hitler established for the German revolution, by identifying the Jews and "Bolsheviks" as racially and ideologically inferior and threatening, and "Aryans" and National Socialists as racially superior and politically progressive.
Hitler's revolutionary goals included expulsion of the Jews from Greater Germany and the unification of German peoples into one Greater Germany.
Hitler desired to restore German lands to their greatest historical extent, real or imagined. Due to its racist content and the historical effect of Nazism upon Europe during World War II and the Holocaust , it is considered a highly controversial book. Criticism has not come solely from opponents of Nazism.
The German journalist Konrad Heiden , an early critic of the Nazi Party, observed that the content of Mein Kampf is essentially a political argument with other members of the Nazi Party who had appeared to be Hitler's friends, but whom he was actually denouncing in the book's content — sometimes by not even including references to them.
The American literary theorist and philosopher Kenneth Burke wrote a rhetorical analysis of the work, The Rhetoric of Hitler's "Battle" , which revealed an underlying message of aggressive intent. He suggested that the book exhausted curious German readers, but its "ceaseless repetition of the argument, left impregnably in their minds, fecund and germinating". Orwell suggested that the force of Hitler's personality shone through the often "clumsy" writing, capturing the magnetic allure of Hitler for many Germans.
In essence, Orwell notes, Hitler offers only visions of endless struggle and conflict in the creation of "a horrible brainless empire" that "stretch[es] to Afghanistan or thereabouts". He wrote, "Whereas Socialism, and even capitalism in a more grudging way, have said to people 'I offer you a good time,' Hitler has said to them, 'I offer you struggle, danger, and death,' and as a result a whole nation flings itself at his feet.
In his book The Menace of the Herd , Austrian scholar Erik von Kuehnelt-Leddihn  described Hitler's ideas in Mein Kampf and elsewhere as "a veritable reductio ad absurdum of ' progressive ' thought"  and betraying "a curious lack of original thought" that shows Hitler offered no innovative or original ideas but was merely "a virtuoso of commonplaces which he may or may not repeat in the guise of a 'new discovery.
When Hitler and Mussolini attack the "western democracies" they insinuate that their "democracy" is not genuine. National Socialism envisages abolishing the difference in wealth, education, intellect, taste, philosophy, and habits by a leveling process which necessitates in turn a total control over the child and the adolescent.
Every personal attitude will be branded—after communist pattern—as " bourgeois ," and this in spite of the fact that the bourgeois is the representative of the most herdist class in the world, and that National Socialism is a basically bourgeois movement. Hitler in Mein Kampf repeatedly speaks of the "masses" and the "herd" referring to the people. The German people should probably, in his view, remain a mass of identical "individuals" in an enormous sand heap or ant heap, identical even to the color of their shirts, the garment nearest to the body.
In his The Second World War , published in several volumes in the late s and early s, Winston Churchill wrote that he felt that after Hitler's ascension to power, no other book than Mein Kampf deserved more intensive scrutiny. While Hitler was in power — , Mein Kampf came to be available in three common editions. The first, the Volksausgabe or People's Edition, featured the original cover on the dust jacket and was navy blue underneath with a gold swastika eagle embossed on the cover.
The Hochzeitsausgabe , or Wedding Edition, in a slipcase with the seal of the province embossed in gold onto a parchment-like cover was given free to marrying couples. In , the Tornister-Ausgabe , or Knapsack Edition, was released. This edition was a compact, but unabridged, version in a red cover and was released by the post office, available to be sent to loved ones fighting at the front.
These three editions combined both volumes into the same book. A special edition was published in in honour of Hitler's 50th birthday. It came in both dark blue and bright red boards with a gold sword on the cover.
This work contained both volumes one and two. It was considered a deluxe version, relative to the smaller and more common Volksausgabe. The book could also be purchased as a two-volume set during Hitler's rule, and was available in soft cover and hardcover. The soft cover edition contained the original cover as pictured at the top of this article. The hardcover edition had a leather spine with cloth-covered boards.
The cover and spine contained an image of three brown oak leaves. At the time of his suicide, Hitler's official place of residence was in Munich , which led to his entire estate, including all rights to Mein Kampf , changing to the ownership of the state of Bavaria.
The government of Bavaria, in agreement with the federal government of Germany, refused to allow any copying or printing of the book in Germany. It also opposed copying and printing in other countries, but with less success. As per German copyright law, the entire text entered the public domain on 1 January , 70 years after the author's death. Owning and buying the book in Germany is not an offence.
Trading in old copies is lawful as well, unless it is done in such a fashion as to "promote hatred or war. In , Stephan Kramer, secretary-general of the Central Council of Jews in Germany , not only recommended lifting the ban, but volunteered the help of his organization in editing and annotating the text, saying that it is time for the book to be made available to all online. In , the French government unofficially sponsored the publication of an unauthorized translation.
It was meant as a warning and included a critical introduction by Marshal Lyautey "Every Frenchman must read this book". It was published by far-right publisher Fernand Sorlot in an agreement with the activists of LICRA who bought copies to be offered to "influential people"; however, most of them treated the book as a casual gift and did not read it.
Hitler, as the author, and Eher-Verlag , his German publisher, had to sue for copyright infringement in the Commercial Court of France. Hitler's lawsuit succeeded in having all copies seized, the print broken up, and having an injunction against booksellers offering any copies. However, a large quantity of books had already been shipped and stayed available undercover by Sorlot.
The French edition was pages long, while the original title was pages, and it was titled Ma doctrine "My doctrine ". After the war, Fernand Sorlot re-edited, re-issued, and continue to sell the work, without permission from the state of Bavaria on which the author's rights had defaulted.
In the s, the rise of the extreme right in France along with the growing of Holocaust denial works, placed the Mein Kampf under judicial watch and in , LICRA entered a complaint in the courts against the publisher for inciting antisemitism. Sorlot received a "substantial fine" but the court also granted him the right to continue publishing the work, provided certain warnings and qualifiers accompany the text. On 1 January , seventy years after the author's death, Mein Kampf entered the public domain in France.
Since its first publication in India in , Mein Kampf has gone through hundreds of editions and sold over , copies. In April a number of Russian-language news sites Baltnews , Zvezda , Sputnik , Komsomolskaya Pravda and Komprava among others reported that Adolf Hitler had allegedly become more popular in Latvia than Harry Potter , referring to a Latvian online book trading platform ibook.
In research done by Polygraph. In addition to that, the website only had 4 copies on sale by individual users and no users wishing to purchase the book. In the Russian Federation , Mein Kampf has been published at least three times since ; the Russian text is also available on websites. In the Public Chamber of Russia proposed banning the book. In St. Petersburg's branch of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs requested to remove an annotated and hyper-linked Russian translation of the book from a historiography website.
Mein Kampf has been reprinted several times since ; in , , and In the Government of Bavaria tried to stop the publication of the book, and the case went to the Supreme Court of Sweden which ruled in favour of the publisher, stating that the book is protected by copyright, but that the copyright holder is unidentified and not the State of Bavaria and that the original Swedish publisher from had gone out of business.
It therefore refused the Government of Bavaria's claim. Mein Kampf was widely available and growing in popularity in Turkey , even to the point where it became a bestseller, selling up to , copies in just two months in Analysts and commentators believe the popularity of the book to be related to a rise in nationalism and anti-U. A columnist in Shalom stated this was a result of "what is happening in the Middle East, the Israeli-Palestinian problem and the war in Iraq.
In the United States, Mein Kampf can be found at many community libraries and can be bought, sold and traded in bookshops.
More than 15, copies are sold a year. After a public outcry, both companies agreed to stop those sales to addresses in Germany. On 3 February , the Institute of Contemporary History IfZ in Munich announced plans to republish an annotated version of the text, for educational purposes in schools and universities, in The book had last been published in Germany in
Kavgam by Adolf Hitler
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How Germany deals with Hitler's 'Mein Kampf'
Adolf Hitler Kavgam