Out of the works attributed to him, some are authentic while over are still extant. His cosmological teachings became the dominant worldview in many parts of the Islamic world. Ibn Arabi was Sunni , although his writings on the Twelve Imams were also popularly received among Shia. After his death, Ibn Arabi's teachings quickly spread throughout the Islamic world. His writings were not limited to the Muslim elites, but made their way into other ranks of society through the widespread reach of the Sufi orders. Arabi's work also popularly spread through works in Persian, Turkish, and Urdu.
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Out of the works attributed to him, some are authentic while over are still extant. His cosmological teachings became the dominant worldview in many parts of the Islamic world. Ibn Arabi was Sunni , although his writings on the Twelve Imams were also popularly received among Shia. After his death, Ibn Arabi's teachings quickly spread throughout the Islamic world. His writings were not limited to the Muslim elites, but made their way into other ranks of society through the widespread reach of the Sufi orders.
Arabi's work also popularly spread through works in Persian, Turkish, and Urdu. Many popular poets were trained in the Sufi orders and were inspired by Arabi's concepts. Ibn Arabi's paternal ancestry was from the Arabian tribe of Tayy ,  and his maternal ancestry was North African Berber. His family then relocated from Murcia to Seville. As a young man Ibn Arabi became secretary to the governor of Seville. He married Maryam from an influential family. Ibn Arabi writes that as a child he preferred playing with his friends to spending time on religious education.
He had his first vision of God in his teens and later wrote of the experience as "the differentiation of the universal reality comprised by that look". Later he had several more visions of Jesus and called him his "first guide to the path of God". His father, on noticing a change in him, had mentioned this to philosopher and judge, Ibn Rushd Averroes ,  who asked to meet Ibn Arabi.
Ibn Arabi said that from this first meeting, he had learned to perceive a distinction between formal knowledge of rational thought and the unveiling insights into the nature of things. He then adopted Sufism and dedicated his life to the spiritual path. Ibn Arabi left Spain for the first time at age 36 and arrived at Tunis in After a year in Tunisia, he returned to Andalusia in His father died soon after Ibn Arabi arrived at Seville.
When his mother died some months later he left Spain for the second time and travelled with his two sisters to Fez, Morocco in This time Ibn Arabi was travelling north; first they visited Medina and in they entered Baghdad. It was his first time that he passed through Syria, visiting Aleppo and Damascus. The next four to five years of Ibn Arabi's life were spent in these lands and he also kept travelling and holding the reading sessions of his works in his own presence.
Although Ibn Arabi stated on more than one occasion that he did not prefer any one of the schools of Islamic jurisprudence , he was responsible for copying and preserving books of the Zahirite or literalist school, to which he has been ironically and erroneously ascribed.
Ibn Arabi did delve into specific details at times, and was known for his view that religiously binding consensus could only serve as a source of sacred law if it was the consensus of the first generation of Muslims who had witnessed revelation directly.
Taking an idea already common within Sufi culture, Ibn Arabi applied deep analysis and reflection on the concept of a perfect human and one's pursuit in fulfilling this goal. In developing his explanation of the perfect being, Ibn Arabi first discusses the issue of oneness through the metaphor of the mirror.
In this philosophical metaphor, Ibn Arabi compares an object being reflected in countless mirrors to the relationship between God and his creatures.
God's essence is seen in the existent human being, as God is the object and human beings the mirrors. Meaning two things; that since humans are mere reflections of God there can be no distinction or separation between the two and, without God the creatures would be non-existent.
When an individual understands that there is no separation between human and God they begin on the path of ultimate oneness. The one who decides to walk in this oneness pursues the true reality and responds to God's longing to be known. The search within for this reality of oneness causes one to be reunited with God, as well as, improve self-consciousness.
The perfect human, through this developed self-consciousness and self-realization, prompts divine self-manifestation. This causes the perfect human to be of both divine and earthly origin. Ibn Arabi metaphorically calls him an Isthmus. Being an Isthmus between heaven and Earth, the perfect human fulfills God's desire to be known.
God's presence can be realized through him by others. Ibn Arabi expressed that through self manifestation one acquires divine knowledge, which he called the primordial spirit of Muhammad and all its perfection. Ibn Arabi details that the perfect human is of the cosmos to the divine and conveys the divine spirit to the cosmos.
Ibn Arabi further explained the perfect man concept using at least twenty-two different descriptions and various aspects when considering the Logos. Ibn Arabi believed Muhammad to be the primary perfect man who exemplifies the morality of God. Ibn Arabi believed that God's attributes and names are manifested in this world, with the most complete and perfect display of these divine attributes and names seen in Muhammad. Ibn Arabi believed that one may see God in the mirror of Muhammad.
He maintained that Muhammad was the best proof of God and, by knowing Muhammad, one knows God. Ibn Arabi also described Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, and all other prophets and various Awliya Allah Muslim saints as perfect men, but never tires of attributing lordship, inspirational source, and highest rank to Muhammad.
The reaction of Ibn 'Abd as-Salam , a Muslim scholar respected by both Ibn Arabi's supporters and detractors, has been of note due to disputes over whether he himself was a supporter or detractor. All parties have claimed to have transmitted Ibn 'Abd as-Salam's comments from his student Ibn Sayyid al-Nas, yet the two sides have transmitted very different accounts.
Some works are attributed to Ibn Arabi, although only some have been authenticated. Recent research suggests that over of his works have survived in manuscript form, although most printed versions have not yet been critically edited and include many errors.
The second draft, which the most widely circulated and used, was bequeathed to his disciple, Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi. Later in , Ibn al-Arabi Foundation in Pakistan published the Urdu translation, including the new critical of Arabic edition.
The first English translation was done in partial form by Angela Culme-Seymour  from the French translation of Titus Burckhardt as Wisdom of the Prophets ,  and the first full translation was by Ralph Austin as Bezels of Wisdom The only major commentary to have been translated into English so far is entitled Ismail Hakki Bursevi 's translation and commentary on Fusus al-hikam by Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi , translated from Ottoman Turkish by Bulent Rauf in 4 volumes — It is due to this reason that his translation is in the curriculum of Punjab University.
Maulvi Abdul Qadeer Siddiqui has made an interpretive translation and explained the terms and grammar while clarifying the Shaikh's opinions. A new edition of the translation was published in with brief annotations throughout the book for the benefit of contemporary Urdu reader. As of this edit , this article uses content from "A Concise biography of Ibn 'Arabi" , which is licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.
All relevant terms must be followed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Arab Andalusian Sufi mystic and philosopher. For the Maliki scholar, see Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi. Mysticism names of God ontology poetry Sufi metaphysics. Abu Madyan , Mohammed ibn Qasim al-Tamimi.
Sufi orders. List of sufis. Notable early Notable modern Singers. Topics in Sufism. UMI Dissertations Publishing. April Ibn 'Arabi: Heir to the Prophets. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. World Digital Library. Retrieved In Zalta, Edward N. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 19 July Sufi Essays. Chicago: Kazi Publications, Inc. It is well known that Ibn 'Arabi, from the point of view of his madhhab was a Sunni SUNY Press. Encyclopedia Britannica. Oxford: Anqa Publishing. Like many Andalusians, he came of mixed parentage: his father's name indicates an Arab family, which had probably emigrated to Andalusia in the early years of the Arab conquest, while his mother seems to have come from a Berber family September University of California Press.
Retrieved 11 February Cambridge: Islamic Texts Society. Taken from Modernist Islam A Sourcebook, pg. Edited by Charles Kurzman. Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture. January The Muslim World. Washington, D. For Ibn Arabi, the Logos or "Universal Man" was a mediating link between individual human beings and the divine essence.
Austin rev. Fusus al-Hikam. Ibn al-Arabi Foundation.
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Arabic Book - Fusus Al Hikam - Ibn Arabi