Translated by various Sanskrit Scholars. Major B. BASU, I. A,, PH. The Sixteen categories.
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Translated by various Sanskrit Scholars. Major B. BASU, I. A,, PH. The Sixteen categories. Release Jrori. M e a n s of knowledge vm. Objects of knowledge i t? Mind w defined. Transmigration fawra d e f i n e d. E x a m p l e o r familiar instance fgffl. Proposition ifnw. Confutation n i. Fallacies of reason trwmi. T h e controversial or equal t o the question m w n. T h e reciprocal or unproved otwi.
Quibble wi Quibble in respect of a term wjjra Quibble in respect of a genus srnpwm. Quibble in respect of a metaphor B'rorcwi. Doubt iw examined. T h e means and objects of knowledge uro-JPta e x a m i n e d. Comparison vtm examined. Blame finp. Reinculcation w p m f. Means of knowledge itm examined. Presumption wfafft. Non-existence iwrc. Word iO. Individual "tftt. Genus wtft. T h e s o u l vmi established. Touch W5. Intellect or knowledge 5 8 is not eternal. Activity wrfn.
Transmigration fcrvira. Entity does not arise from non-en t i t. Futility wft. Balancing an addition wwfcaro.
B a l a n c i n g the unquestionable wafarar. B a l a n c i n g the alternative fiwwww. Balancing the reciprocity imm. Balancing t h e. Balancing the infinite regression. Balancing the counter-example alaggpww. Balancing t h e non-produced wy q ffwwi. Balancing the controversy jwwwi Balancing t h e non-reason m f y p m. Balancing the presumption wWtnw i. Balancing the non-difference wWwu. Balancing t h e non-perception wjwfinwi.
Balancing the non-eternal Jifiww. Balancing t h e eternal ftwOTi Balancing the effect wfoir. Admission o f an opinion wjit. Occasions for rebuke ftnfwi. The inopportune vitmm.
Repetition j t o p i. Silence vryim. Ignorance wt. Admission of an opinion "Wijw. Censuring the non-censurable t i k t f b m f m. Panini, the celebrated Sanskrit grammarian, w h o i s s u p p o s e d t o h a v e. Logic is designated in Sanskrit n o t o n l y b y. C,, as is evident from the following :. Kathfisarit-sSgara, Chapter I V.
Otto Bochtlingk o b s e r v e s :—. Pacini's Astadhyayi Lalitavistara, C h a p t e r X I I. Aniarakosa, svargavarga, v e r s e , 1 6 5. In the Rigveda-samhita a s well as the Sathapatha-Brahmana o f the. The family of Gotama. Naisadhacharitam 1 7 - 7 5. Padtnannrana, Uttarakfanmla, Chapter 2 0 3.
Udyotakara's Nyayaviirtika, opening l i n e s. I n t h e Sarvadarsanasanigraha Nyfiya philosophy is called t h e A k s a p f i d a s y s t e m. K a l i d a s a ' s Rnghuvamsam It is related that Gotama, once pinched with thirst, prayed for water of t h e. Brahmana of the Samaveda mentions four members. Rigveda-samhita, Maiulala t, Sukta S3, M a n t r a 1 1. T h e well ufcsadkl is alluded to in the Rigveda, M a i u l a l a 4 , thus: —. Samavediya Vamsa-Brahmana, K h a n t l a 2.
C h a n d o g y a Upanisad, Adbyaya 4 , Khanrla 4. Gobhila Grhya Sutra A t h a r v a v e d a w h i l e t o another Gautama is attributed the authorship of. It is well-known h o w.
Brhadavanyaka, A d h y a y a 4. Kathopanisad, V a l l i 5. WlWfjt fautorar: g! Raghuvaiiwa, S a r g a 1 1. Vayupiu-ana, A d b y a y a 2 3. Nyayakoja, 2nd edition, by M. T h e people of Mithila. Loeal tradition. It is situated 28 miles north-east of. Ahalytl in her accursed s t a t e. Gautama-kunda and the Ksirodadhi river, which a i " e s t i l l e x t a n t a t.
G a u t a m a , husband of Ahalya and founder of the Nyaya philosophy, r e s i d e d. T h e founder. It is interesting. Satananda 6 son of Gautama by Ahalytl, is a priest i n. Uttara Rama oharitam. The fields waving.
Nyaya Sutras of Gautama Text
The Nyaya-sutra s probably were composed by Gautama or Akshapada about the 2nd century bce , though there is ample evidence that many sutra s were subsequently interpolated. The sutra s are divided into five chapters, each with two sections. The work begins with a statement of the subject matter, the purpose, and the relation of the subject matter to the attainment of that purpose. The ultimate purpose is salvation —i. The words knowledge , buddhi , and consciousness are used synonymously. Four means of valid knowledge are admitted: perception, inference , comparison, and verbal testimony.
The text consists of five books, with two chapters in each book, with a cumulative total of aphoristic Sutras, about rules of reason, logic, epistemology and metaphysics. The Nyaya Sutras is a Hindu text, notable for focusing on knowledge and logic, and making no mention of Vedic rituals. The first book is structured as a general introduction and table of contents of sixteen categories of knowledge. Book two is about pramana epistemology , book three is about prameya or the objects of knowledge, and the text discusses the nature of knowledge in remaining books.