Full Length Research Paper. Search for this author on: Google Scholar. Berlinia grandiflora is used for managing numerous ailments including tumor in South-west, Nigeria. The phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of B.
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Full Length Research Paper. Search for this author on: Google Scholar. Berlinia grandiflora is used for managing numerous ailments including tumor in South-west, Nigeria. The phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of B. The antioxidant activity was carried out by standard analytical methods. The antiproliferative activity was done using growth inhibition activity of Sorghum bicolor seed radicle with methotrexate as the reference drug. The presence of some phytochemicals known to have antioxidant properties and exert anticancer effects is revealed in this study.
The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of betulinc acid, ferulic acid, rutin and caffeic acid. However, ferulic acid, rutin, and caffeic acid were identified for the first time in B. Free radical scavenging activity, reducing power capacity and nitric oxide inhibitory activity were exhibited by the extract, with IC50 values of While ascorbic acid, the reference compound, used in this study has IC50 values of 0.
A dose-dependent antiproliferative activity was observed with IC50 values of 0. Key words: Antiproliferative, antioxidant, phytochemicals, cancer, Berlinia grandiflora, betulinic acid. Berlinia grandiflora Vahl Hutch. Locally in Nigeria, B. The medicinal value of B. The bark sap is used for dressing wound and sores, while the bark decoction is used for managing haemorrhoids and liver problems. The bark extract is also used to ease labor pain during childbirth and for treating gastrointestinal disorder Josephs et al.
Leafy twigs decoction is used to ameliorate fever conditions and to combat vomiting and nausea. The leaf decoction is drunk as a tonic and used to improve blood circulation Ode et al. The leaf extract is used to manage cancer in south-western Nigeria, as a vermifuge, and for treating diarrhea and diabetes Soladoye et al. Previous researchers have reported the phytochemical analysis, analgesic activity Asuzu et al. Also, the cytotoxicity of chemical compounds in the seed of the plant has been reported by Duru et al.
The leaves and stem barks of B. The antimicrobial property of B. The major compounds in the aqueous extract of B.
These compounds may be responsible for the acute toxicity of the seed of B. The methanol extract of the leaf also shows acute toxicity in mice Josephs et al. Methanol extract of the leafs and stem barks of B.
Similarly, the aqueous extract of the seeds was reported to contain alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenol, flavonoids and starch, while anthraquinones, phenols, steroids and cyanogenic glycoside were absent Josephs et al.
Although B. Therefore, the aim of this study is to scientifically evaluate the antiproliferative activity and antioxidant properties of the ethanol extract of the plant leaf with a view to providing scientific information to justify its use for managing cancer and tumors. The fresh leaves were was air dried at room temperature for 10 days after which they were crushed with the aid of a mortar and pestle. The resultant mixture was vacuum filtered using filter paper Whatman No.
The concentrate was then dried on a water bath to produce the dry ethanol extract. Method reported by Okhale et al. Reference standards betulinic acid, rutin, quercetin, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, and apigenin were analyzed separately under the same conditions as the extract. The total run time was 22 min. This method relies on the reduction of DPPH in an alcohol solution in the presence of a hydrogen-donating species antioxidant compounds due to the formation of the non-radical form DPPH-H.
This reaction produces a color change from purple to yellow, which is measured by a spectrophotometer. The disappearance of the purple color is monitored at nm. The reaction mixture comprises 1. It was incubated for 10 min in the dark, and then the absorbance was measured at nm.
In this assay, the positive control was ascorbic acid Ode et al. Briefly, sodium nitroprusside 10 mM in phosphate-buffered saline pH 7.
The absorbance of the chromophore formed during the diazotization of nitrite with sulphanilamide and subsequent coupling with napthylethylenediamine was read at nm. Inhibition of nitrite formation by the plant extract was calculated relative to ascorbic acid which was used as the standard antioxidant drug. The IC50 value was determined using graph pad. Briefly, 2. Ascorbic acid was used as a standard. Results were presented as IC The reaction mixture was prepared by mixing 0.
Blank was also prepared to contain 0. Samples were allowed to stand for 30 min. The absorbance was measured using spectrophotometer at nm. The samples were prepared in triplicate for each analysis and the mean values of absorbance were obtained.
The same procedure was repeated for the standard solution of gallic acid and the calibration curve was constructed. The seeds were subjected to a viability test by transferring the seeds into a beaker containing water. The floating seeds were discarded while the fully submerged seeds were cleaned, dried and used for the assay Okhale et al. The test seeds were separated into six groups; four groups for the four different test solutions of B.
Petri dishes were layered with cotton wool and filter paper Whatman No. Each specific Petri dish with seeds received 15 mL of the particular concentration of the test solution used for pre-treatment the seeds in first Petri dish were treated with extract concentration of 0. The experiments were carried out in triplicates and the seeds were incubated in a dark room and observed for growth after 24 h.
The mean lengths mm of radical emerging from the seeds were measured after 48, 72 and 96 h. The percentage inhibition and percentage growth after 48, 72 and 92 h of treatment with extracts and the positive control methotrexate at 0. Graph pad prism was used to calculate the IC50 value. The extraction yield of the dried leaves of B. Phytochemical screening of the extract reveals the presence of alkaloids, saponins, terpenes, steroids, flavonoid, phenols and tannins.
However, anthraquinones were not detected in the test sample. Previous studies have shown that B. The result of the phytochemical analysis in the present study is also consistent with the report of Asuzu et al. The therapeutic property of plants is widely due to the presence of phytochemicals in them. Previous studies have shown that phytochemicals possess several pharmacological activities such as; anti-inflammatory activity, anti-atherosclerotic activity, anti-tumor activity, anti-mutagenic activity, anti-cancer activity, anti-bacterial activity, anti-viral activity to mention a few Adamu et al.
Phenolic compound has been proven to exhibit preventive and therapeutic effects against diseases where oxidative stress has been implicated, including cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders and aging Adamu et al. A total of nine peaks appeared with retention times Rt of 3. This is in agreement with the report of Enwerem et al.
Caffeic acid, rutin and ferulic acid have been reported to exhibit antioxidant activity Rice-Evans et al. In this assay, the ethanol extract of B. The result of this study is similar to the report of Ode et al.
Nitric oxide is a potent inhibitor of physiological processes such as smooth muscle relaxation, neuronal signaling, and inhibition of platelet aggregation and regulation of cell- mediated toxicity; it is also implicated in inflammation, cancer and other pathological conditions Esievo et al.
From Table 1, B. Several studies have confirmed the correlation between antioxidant activity and reducing power in plant extracts. Reducing power may be used as a pointer to potential antioxidants. The occurrence of antioxidants reducing species in extracts causes reduction of Fe III to Fe II complexes which can be determined by the formation of prussain blue color.
This reduction may be due to the donation of a hydrogen atom from phenolic compounds Shimada et al. The reducing power of B. Plant phenols are a major group of the compounds acting as free radical scavengers and as such, it is important to estimate the content of phenol in the extract Brum et al.
Phenols contain hydroxyls that are responsible for the antioxidant properties which may be due to their redox properties Rice-Evans et al. According to this study, the phenol content may be responsible for the antioxidant activity of the extract. Growth inhibitory effects of B.
The result of antiproliferative activity of BG showed that there is a significant reduction in the length of radicles of S. After 48 h of incubation, the percentage inhibition of 0. However, methotrexate has a percentage inhibition of It was observed that the percentage inhibition increased with corresponding increase in the concentration of the extract Table 2.
This suggests that the extract exhibits a concentration-dependent inhibition. The extract also showed a time-dependent inhibition; the percentage inhibition of each concentration increases with increase in incubation time; the percentage inhibition after 48, 72 and 96 h for 0. The IC 50 values of the antiproliferative activity of the ethanol extract of BG were 0. Therefore it can be implied that the ethanol extract of BG can mitigate the fast proliferation of cancer cells. The fact that 0.
Westia grandiflora Vahl; Berlinia heudelotiana Baill. The tree reaches a height of 32 to 43 m. The bole is often clear and fairly straight, cylindrical and free of buttresses. The trunk diameter attains up to cm. Berlinia grandiflora is found in various forest types like savanna formations, marshy localities, or dense forests. Wood diffuse porous. Tangential diameter of vessel lumina micras or more large.
West African Plants
EPPO Global Database